Chapter 4: Data Analysis and Results
The purpose of this chapter is to summarize the collected data, how it was analyzed and then to present the results. This chapter typically contains the analyzed data, often presented in both text and tabular or figure format. To ensure readability and clarity of findings, organization, and structure are of the utmost importance in this chapter.
Introduction
This section provides an orientation about what will be covered in chapter four. The findings/results are usually organized by themes or specific research questions.
Results
This section, which is the primary section of this chapter, presents a comprehensive summary and analysis of the data in a factual nonevaluative and organized manner that relates to the research question. Address the research question(s) in the order that they are listed in previous chapters for quantitative studies. You can organize your data in several different ways for qualitative studies, including, by research questions, by themes and patterns, or by other approaches deemed appropriate for the study. (Please organize by themes)
The use of graphic organizers, such as tables and figures, or interview excerpts and observational notes to provide further clarification and promote understanding, are valuable to organize and present data. Ensure the data reported cannot lead to anyone identifying individual participants in this section or identifying the data for individual participants in the data summary and data analysis that follows.
Tables should be referred to within the text using the table number in parentheses (Table 1) and stating “Table 1 shows…” or something similar. “Table above”, “Table below” or “Table on page…” should not be used. Each table should be introduced.

Table 1
A Sample Data Table Showing Correct Formatting

Column A
M (SD)
Column B
M (SD)
Column C
M (SD)
Row 1
10.1 (1.11)
20.2 (2.22)
30.3 (3.33)
Row 2
20.2 (2.22)
30.3 ( 3.33)
20.2 (2.22)
Row 3
30.3 (3.33)
10.1 (1.11)
10.1 (1.11)

A descriptive summary should follow the table. The reader needs to understand the meaning of numerical data and the results.
If you are relying on interview data, provide the most representative and/or compelling excerpts. Similar to tables, the excerpts need to be introduced. Interview excerpts supplement, support, and illustrate the results of data analyses and therefore require an introduction and a brief descriptive conclusion. For example, Participant/ Pseudonym stated/shared,
Participants’ words. Participants’ words. Participants’ words. Participants’ words.
Participants’ words. Participants’ words. Participants’ words. Participants’ words.
Participants’ words. Participants’ words. Participants’ words. Participants’ words.
Do not provide excerpts that are a page long or excerpts without an explanation.
Summary
This section provides a concise summary of what was found in the study. It briefly restates essential data and data analysis presented in this chapter, and it helps the reader see and understand the relevance of the data and analysis to the research question(s) or hypothesis(es). It also provides a transition into Chapter 5.

The Unspoken Wound: A Qualitative Study of Educators’ Adverse Childhood Experiences