1. Compare and contrast the establishment of the new nation-states of Italy and Germany in nineteenth-century Europe.
  2. What led to the rise of anti-Semitism in Europe during the nineteenth century? In what ways did Zionism reflect the ideals of liberalism?
  3. In what ways did the mistreatment of workers lead to Marx and Engels’s Communist Manifesto? Compare and contrast Marxism with socialist revisionism.
Modern History