1.a. Discuss 4 – 5 features how prokaryotes in general are different from eukaryotic members. Include how prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes belongs to the microbial world.

b. Provide at least 2 features / characteristics of each member of the eukaryotic world.

2. What are infectious agents of the microbial world ?
Provide at least 5 features of viruses and prions members.

3. Explain why eyes are the preferred portal of entry for most microbes.

4. a. Discuss active vs passive defense barriers associated with pathogens with specific examples.
b. Discuss the various stages of disease development.

5. a. Describe the structure of peptidoglycan

b. Describe in detail the architecture and structure of Gram negative cell wall structure

c. Discuss how Gram positive cell wall is different from Gram negative wall structure. Include all specific details to score full credit points.

d. What are teichoic acid and their location? Provide role of the teichoic acid in bacterial cells.

6. Discuss glycocalyx of bacterial cells and it’s importance with examples.