Use evidence from Gianna’s speech sample at the end of this document to answer the following
questions. Answers to the 4 questions should be reported in a single document and submitted on Canvas
by 11:59 p.m. on 10/2/2020. See the sample assignment for reference. Using the same words and
sentences from the sample assignment (even if substituting numbers and examples) will be
considered plagiarism and will result in a 0 grade.
1. In what stage of phonological development is Gianna in? That is, is she (a) in the pre-linguistic
speech sound development stage? (b) Or in the first words stage? (c) Or in the stage characterized by
phonological processes? (d) Or in the period of phonetic inventory completion? (e) Or in the stage of
advanced phonology? Justify your answer by giving her pronunciation accuracy (in %).
2. Describe at least 4 of Gianna’s phonological processes. Provides different examples for each.
Does Gianna use words referentially (as adults) or are there some context-bound words, over- and
under-extensions? Define each of these and give examples from the sample.
Calculate the sample’s lexical diversity and discuss whether there are more nouns, verbs or
How to calculate the sample’s lexical diversity:
B Count all nouns, verbs and adjectives in the sample.
C For example, let’s say the child says: dog, blue, go, house, go, pretty, dog, big, cat, blue.
D Count all these words (only nouns, verbs and adjectives): 10 total words.
E Count all different words (no repetitions counted): dog, blue, go, house, pretty, big, cat =7
F Divide the number of different words (7) by the number of total words (10) = 7/10 = 0.7
G Ratios above 0.5 mean the vocabulary in the sample is varied.
H Ratios lower than 0.5 mean that the vocabulary is repetitive.
I A 0.7 ratio indicates that the child’s vocabulary in the sample is a varied.

Analyzing Gianna’s level of phonological and lexical development